Tuesday, September 29, 2015

${... } placeholders support in @Value annotations in Spring

${...} placeholders in @Value annotation are used to access properties registered with @PropertySource. This is extremely useful with @Configuration beans in Spring applications, but not only. To be sure that this is possible, PropertySourcesPlaceholderConfigurer must be present in all application contexts that placeholders resolution is required.

In this blog post you will learn how to configure placeholders resolution in Spring 4 applications and how to inject different types of objects using @Value annotation, including JSR-310 Date-Time, JSR-354 Money & Currency or java.util.Optional.

Registering PropertySourcesPlaceholderConfigurer

In Spring applications with no-xml configuration, a static PropertySourcesPlaceholderConfigurer bean must be registered in all application contexts.

To register PropertySourcesPlaceholderConfigurer simply add a static bean of the same type to the configuration together with the property source(s) you want to have access to. To import multiple property sources use @PropertySources annotation (prior to Java 8) or multiple @PropertySource annotations (Java 8).

class ApplicationConfig {

    public static PropertySourcesPlaceholderConfigurer placeholderConfigurer() {
        return new PropertySourcesPlaceholderConfigurer();


The other way to add property source to the configurer is by calling its setLocation method:

class ApplicationConfig {

    public static PropertySourcesPlaceholderConfigurer placeholderConfigurer() {
        PropertySourcesPlaceholderConfigurer c = new PropertySourcesPlaceholderConfigurer();
        c.setLocation(new ClassPathResource("application.properties"));
        return c;


Injecting simple properties

Now you can easily access the properties with @Value annotation and placeholders:

private String stringProperty;
private int intProperty;
private boolean boolProperty;       

The properties are defined in the application.properties file:

my.string.property=Some text

When the property cannot be resolved you will get an exception:

java.lang.IllegalArgumentException: Could not resolve placeholder 'placeholder' in string value "${placeholder}"

Ignoring unresolvable placeholders

If you want to ignore all unresolvable placeholders automatically, set a proper flag of the configurer:

PropertySourcesPlaceholderConfigurer c = new PropertySourcesPlaceholderConfigurer();


Default values

Default values can be provided with the following syntax:

private String stringProperty;

Empty default value is also supported, which results in an empty stringProperty:

private String stringProperty;

Null Values

If you want empty values to be treated as null you may set a nullValue property of the configurer like this:

PropertySourcesPlaceholderConfigurer c = new PropertySourcesPlaceholderConfigurer();

This can be helpful, especially wile working with java.util.Optional (see below).

Injecting non-simple properties

To inject complex properties using @Value annotation you need to make a Spring’s ConversionService available in the application context . Registering default conversion service gives the possibility to inject lists, arrays and other convertible types. Usually, in the Spring’s servlet context the ConversionService will be registered (e.g. via @EnableWebMvc), but in order to manually register it you can use the following code. Please note, the name of the bean must be conversionService:

public static ConversionService conversionService() {
    return new DefaultFormattingConversionService();

DefaultFormattingConversionService supports all common converters and formatters, including formatters for JSR-354 Money & Currency, JSR-310 Date-Time and/or Joda-Time.

Injecting list / arrays

To inject a list or an array from a property you define the property’s value with comma separated string:


And inject them like this:

private List<Integer> intList;

private List<Integer> stringArray;

Injecting java.util.Optional

Java 8’s Optional gives a great opportunity to work with optional properties. The trick with injecting Optional with @Value is that property values must be parsed to null value and to achieve that nullValue property of the configurer must be set accordingly (as shown earlier).

private Optional<String> optional;

If there is no property my.optional.property, optional will contain Optional.empty and therefore it can be nicely used in the code:

if (optional.isPresent()) {
    // do something cool

Injecting java.time types

The ConversionService registered contains formatters for JSR-310 Date-Time. The below examples are for LocalDate and LocalDateTime in the current locale:

# format for en_US locale
my.localDateTime.property=9/28/15 10:05 PM
private LocalDate localDate;
private LocalDateTime localDateTime;

Injecting javax.money types

Once javax.money is on the classpath, you can inject MonetaryAmount and CurrencyUnit:

my.monetaryAmount.property=USD 299
private MonetaryAmount monetaryAmount;
private CurrencyUnit currencyUnit;

Injecting custom types

WIth ConversionService it is relatively easy to register custom converters. In the below example java.util.Pattern object will be created from a string value: my.pattern.property=[0-9].*. In order to achieve that we need to add custom converted:

DefaultFormattingConversionService cs = new DefaultFormattingConversionService();

cs.addConverter(String.class, Pattern.class, (Converter<String, Pattern>) Pattern::compile);

Now the property can be injected like below:

private Pattern pattern;

Extras - Access Spring’s properties in Thymeleaf view

If you are working with Thymeleaf and you want to access properties registered with Spring’s environment (with PropertySourcesPlaceholderConfigurer or simply with @PropertySource) you may use Thymeleaf’s ability to access Spring beans properties using SpringEL’s syntax: ${@myBean.doSomething()}. All properties are available via Environment interface, so accessing it in Thymeleaf is as simple as calling its getProperty method:

 <div th:fragment="footer" th:align="center">
    <span th:text="${@environment.getProperty('app.version')}"></span>

Closing note

You may find some simple usage of @Value annotation and PropertySourcesPlaceholderConfigurer in my Spring’s quickstart archetype here: https://github.com/kolorobot/spring-mvc-quickstart-archetype.

If you are working with Spring Boot, you may want to read about type safe configuration properties: http://docs.spring.io/spring-boot/docs/current/reference/htmlsingle/#boot-features-external-config-typesafe-configuration-properties


  1. I wonder why nobody but you talk about PropertySourcesPlaceholderConfigurer...
    It saved my life :)

  2. I was using
    public ConversionService conversionService() {
    return new DefaultConversionService();

    to add @Value with Collection types but found it failed to set my existing default values for other types. Finding this post I promptly tried:

    public static ConversionService conversionService() {
    return new DefaultFormattingConversionService();

    which saved my life.

    Thanks for the post.... Bookmarked.

  3. You can also set default value to be null via
    @Value("${my.property:#{null}}") String myProperty

  4. hi there, this didn't worked for me. i'm still getting 'null' when getting values from yml